On the positive note, I managed to write two doctoral papers about it but as expected, my lowest grades in my doctroal classes was on these papers......my professors seem to be unconvinced about the concept.
Taking that as a cue..I decided to go conservative, write on something that my professors may like and are familiar with and secure my doctoral degree. But, I promise that I will write a book about world government via The Globalist Manifesto before I die....for now, I really need the degree...give this stuff to me this time.
Besides, nobody from the international community motivated or requested me to write a dissertation on world government..where is UN? where is Ford Foundation? where is this Bilderberg Group? why are they leaving me alone in this important crusade?
Trailblazing is really a very lonely job.... why do I have to care too much for the future of the human existence when nobody, not even our well known world leaders today, have not shown that much.
So, here is my final dissertation topic proposal, call this as my protest choice, after my first choice have not given me enough encouragements:
PA 399: Advanced Methodology in Administrative Science
Th 5:30-8:30 PM Room 301 Dr. Peter Malvicini
Submitted by: Sofronio “Toti” Dulay
The “Marikina Way”, the Case of Marikina Under the Fernando Administrations (1992-2010)
Bayani Fernando and Maria Lourdes C. Fernando were mayors of Marikina City, Metro Manila, Philippines, for the last 18 years, from 1992 to 2001 for Bayani and from 2001 to 2010 for Maria Lourdes. To put this paper into the proper context, Marikina started as a town of the Province of Rizal and a series of Mayor, including the father of Bayan Fernando, with little progress. With the advent of the Local Government Code and with population growth, it qualified into a city and thereby increasing its IRA, and therefore, more funds for basic services. Bayani Fernando has been a successful business man in the field of construction before joining the public service. He lost once as a municipal councilor and lost again as a mayor. These personal circumstances armed him lessons and gave him drive that forms part of his leadership style.
Public administration, the way it is being done in “Marikina City” since the time of then City Mayor Bayani F. Fernando, who is now the MMDA Chairman, up to the present city mayor, Marides C. Fernando, has cought a lot of attention from public administration practioneers. The city has been reaping several local and international awards. The cleanliness and orderliness of the surroundings around the city is phenomenal. The squatters, the flooding, the anarchy in the sidewalks were all acted upon. Its programs are trailblazing. Oftentimes, you will hear people saying that if things can be done in Marikina, why can’t we do it in other places in the Philippines? In fact, even the Asian Institute of Management’s International Movement of Development Managers is planning to come up with a training module for local leaders on how they can benchmark on Marikina. The proximity of Marikina to Manila and the IRA it gets from the national government as mandated by the Local Government Code are some reasons why Marikina achieved a lot of things. This is the intent of this dissertation; to document the way the Fernando’s ran Marikina.
The couple, MMDA Chairman Bayani Fernando and Marikina Mayor Maria Lourdes C. Fernando had been at the helm of Marikina City for the last 18 years, from 1992 to 2010. To put this paper into the proper context, Marikina started as a town of the Province of Rizal and a series of Mayor, including the father of Bayan Fernando, has not created too much progress. With the advent of the Local Government Code and with population growth, it qualified into a city and thereby increasing its IRA, and therefore, more funds for basic services. Bayani Fernando has been a successful business man in the field of construction before joining the public service. He lost once as a municipal councilor and lost again as a mayor. These personal circumstances gave him enough lessons and drive that forms part of his leadership style. What Bayani Fernando started, his wife, Mayor Marides Fernando continued with a certain touch.
How do you run a city like Marikina – clean, organized, international acclaimed by World Bank and Konrad Adenuer Foundation, prosperous, peaceful and world class, with its former Mayor one of the leading presidential contenders of the country in the 2010 elections and its present Mayor one of the Top 7 finalists in the World Mayor Award? “Our City Hall is run like a private corporation. We treat our clients as our customers whom we want not only to satisfy but to delight.” – Marikina Mayor Marides Fernando. The Marikina local government is divided into seven clusters, namely, administrative support, public order and safety, finance management and project development, infrastructure development and transportation, citizens’ affairs, economic development; and, health and environmental management.
Apparently, the public administration theories and concepts that had been applied in Marikina is the right eclectic pick. “Proof positive of the city's standing in the league of metropolitan cities in the Philippines are the numerous awards and citations that have been bestowed. Marikina was first awarded as The Cleanest and Greenest City not only in Metro Manila but in the entire Philippines which Marikina was the first local government to set as Hall of Famer in that category awarded by the Philippine government. The most recent and most prestigious award received the city of Marikina was the Most Competitive Metro City in the Philippines from the prestigious Asian Institute of Management (AIM) Policy Research Center, Asia Foundation, International Labour Organization (ILO), German Technical Foundation, and Konrad Adenauer Stiflung, and the Continuing Excellence Award in Local Governance given by the Galing Pook Foundation, DILG, Local Government Authority and the Ford Foundation. Marikina was the first local government in the Philippines that has been honored with the prestigious Global 500 Roll Of Honour of the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). Marikina also placing one of the Most Healtiest and Livable City in Asia-Pacific region. It won over 150 awards and recognitions, both local and abroad, in a span of just 15 years. Marikina has become an ideal location for industry, business, commerce and for residences. Marikina was also one of the host cities of the recent 23rd Southeast Asian Games in the Philippines which held the women's football event at the Marikina Sports Park.
At the end of the paper, I should be able to unveil some of the best practices behind the success of Marikina City.
2.0. Literature Review:
The literature that I will be reviewing onmy way of writing this dissertation will be classified into the following:
2.1. Official Marikina Data
We will look for the official city data released annually by the city hall and their different departments such as annual reports, state of the city address, audited financial statements, COA Reports, etc. This will provide the research with official statistics.
2.2. Non – Official Marikina Data
In order to serach for the hamane but factual side of the story, the research has to read publications and articles about Marikina during the Fernando Administration. These materials will include the internal publications of the city hall such as books, factbooks,leaflets, community newspapers, speaches, and others. These will also include articles related to Marikina from local and international publications. Another source of data for this cluster are those we can find in the internet such as the Wikipedia and other websites.
2.3. Public Adminstration Data
In order to have a public administration data that had been thoroughly reviewed, we will use the book of H. George Frederickson and Kevin B. Smith entitled Public Administration Primer. This publication already made critical analysis on the different theories of public administration. If necessary, we may refer to other publications that specializes on specific theories in instances where there is a need to dig deeper on a specific theory.
3.1. Note about the Writer and his probable bias:
The writer of this paper has experiential knowledge of both Marikina and the Fernandos – having grown in Marikina, been allied, then opposition then allied again of the Fernandos in the span of 18 years. The intention of this paper is to document the case of Marikina under the Fernando Administration with the view of the different sectors. The primary sources of this paper are the experiential knowledge of the author as an objective participant of Marikina Case, the interviews to the different sectors, the focused group discussions, purposeful sampling surveys. The paper was able to arrive at with a ground level data and patterns from which conclusions can be formed. The primer of public administration theory will provide a framework of evaluation. Part of the study is to find out if the Fernandos used reflective thinking on an emerging circumstances or if they were guided by a ready sets of public administration theories or consultants with preconceived packaged of theories.
3.2. The overall approach of the study:
This dissertation aims to validate the relationship of public administration theories and practices, with Marikina City as the case in point and the author as the experiential observer. Topic:The “Marikina Way”, the Case of the Fernando Administration in the Lens of the Public Administration Theories.
1. What are the innovations that happened during the 18 years of the Fernando Administration in Marikina?
2. Is the case of Marikina a result of reflective reaction to emerging situation or a studied application of a discipline in public administration?
3. What are the concepts and lessons learned from the field studies in Marikina?
4. What are the perceptions of the different sectors on the Fernando administration?
3.3. Research Problems:
1. What are the innovations (tagged collectively as Marikina Way) initiated during the time of former Marikina Mayor Bayani Fernando and current Mayor Marides Fernando? This can be pursued through secondary data reviews and survey.
2. What are the key theories of public administration as per the writings of H. George Frederickson? This can be achieved by thorough reading and simplification of his theories in his book.
3. Among the Innovations in Marikina Way, which of them will fall in some specific theories discussed by Ferederickson? This can be achieved by coming out with a Matrix:
Innovations Selected vis a vis Public Administration Theories
Public Adminstration Theories
Innovations: A B C D
4. What are the perceived leadership of Bayani and Maria Lourdesthat makes them good leaders?
5. What are the effects of the different innovations in Marikina to the different sectors of the community? This can be achieved through a survey tabulated into this Matrix:
Innovations Different Sectors In the Community
Public Administration Theories
Innovations A B C D
6. Is the Fernando Administration a result of an “Eclectic approach” in public administration, like the Marikina Way, applying public administration theories selectively in governing a City that resulted in a positive way?
3.4. Case Study #1: Marikina Shoe Industry
The study hopes to show the main features of Marikina shoe industry, which is operating in a business concept of clustering. The industry encountered some problems lately, brought about by cheaper shoes from china and Vietnam. The entry is facilitated by the opening of the market resulting from the Philippine entry to the GATT.Because this study talks about policy options, one set of audience for this paper is the legislators. The study also wishes to address government agencies like the Department of Finance which has a jurisdiction of the imposition of tariff. The Office of the President is a good audience for this project since it can decide on the issues of tariff. The local government of Marikina and the local shoe industry are also the target audience of this study since they can initiate lobby to the government. One of the research questions is what is the proper policy options to save the shoe industry of Marikina. In the absence of a better option and given the present condition, what can the shoe manufacturers do to survive?
3.5. Case Study #2: Kabayani Party
Kabayani Party was organized by the Fernando Family as a local party but is attached with the ruling Lakas Kampi CMD. It was meant to provide flexiblity in political alignments. It was able to organize itself effectively winning major fights in Marikina politics.
3.6. Case Study # 3: The Fernando Family
The Fernando family came from the Angkan ng Fernando in Marikina with one of its great great descendants was a governadocillo. In the modern times, it was Mayor Gil Fernando who strengthens the family. His son Bayani Fernando further consolidated the clan and later his wife, Marides Fernando, who is the sitting Mayor further strengthen the family's grip on Marikina'a politics. Bayani Fernando has no son. He has one daughter, a 23 - year - old Tala Fernando who was educated in the US.
3.7. Case Study #4 : The Typhoon Ondoy
Few months before the end of the term of the Fernandos, a history - breaking typhoon put Marikina in an epicenter of a big flood that brought deaths and destruction to properties. The flood was unprecendented in terms of the height of flood water and its impact to the city.
3.8. Methods to be used:
3.8.1. The Option Selected for Method Decision
The paper is a dissertation which should demonstrate doctoral level scholarship. The primary audience for the findings is the doctoral committee. The researcher will be guided by his academic degree: Doctor of Public Administration.
3.8.2. The selected themes of qualitative inquiry. This paper is qualitative; as such it will be guided by the following:
220.127.116.11. We will use purposeful sampling – samples are selected because they are information rich and illuminative. Sampling, then, is aimed at insight about the phenomenon of interest, not empirical generalizations from a sample of population. The result of the survey will show the perceptions of the different clusters sampled.
18.104.22.168. Data collection and fieldwork strategies selected
Qualitative data – observations that yield details and thick description.
Personal experience and engagement – the research has a direct contact with and gets close to the people and situation and phenomenon under study.
Emphatic neutrality and mindfulness – the researcher should show and emphatic stance in interviews by seeking vicarious understanding without judgments.
Dynamic systems – attention to process is important. It assumed that changes are on going whether focused in an individual, an organization, a community or a culture.
22.214.171.124. The analysis strategies selected
Unique case orientation – the analysis is bring true to, respecting and capturing the details of the individual cases being studies to be followed by a cross – case analysis.
Inductive analysis and creative synthesis – immersion in the details and specifics of the data to discover important patterns, themes, and interrelationships.
126.96.36.199. Qualitative inquiry theoretical traditions selected
Reality testing: positivist and realist approach – it answer the questions what is really going on in the real world? What can we established with some degree of certainty.
Grounded theory – what theory emerges from systematic comparative analysis and is grounded in field works so as to explain what has been and is observed.
188.8.131.52. Research purpose selected
Applied research – understand the nature and sources of human and societal problems. The focused are questions important to the society.
184.108.40.206. Units of analysis selected
Geography focused - the research is focused on Marikina City.
220.127.116.11. Purposeful sampling strategies selected
Criteria sampling – picking all cases that meet some criterion
Extreme or deviant case (outlier) sampling – learning from an unusual manifestation of phenomenon of interest, for example, outstanding success, notable failure, top of the class, drop outs, exotic events, crises
Homogeneous sampling – focused; reduced variations, facilitates group interview
Stratified purposeful sampling – illustrates characteristics of a particular subgroup of interest, facilitates interaction
18.104.22.168. Case study approach, the option for organizing and reporting qualitative data selected
People – individual or groups are the primary units of analysis
Critical events – critical or major events can constitute self contained descriptive units of analysis
3.9. Survey Form:
See attachment A
4.0. Anticipated Findings:
The Marikina Way, which described the case of Marikina under the Fernandos is a convergence of good timing (LGC, IRA, national growth), character traits of the leaders (Bayani and Marides Fernando) and a series of judgment calls, decisions and innovations based on the proper appraisal of the situations. The Fernandos got their management styles from their business experiences in the corporate world which to some extent has overlap on public administration concepts. Using the array of public administration theory as a lens of their effectiveness is one way of validating the public administration theories on the ground. There are semblances of usage of public administration theories but they were not derived thru formal education; Bayani Fernando being a mechanical engineer and Marides Fernando being a BS Tourism graduate. One thing noticeable is the couple does not stick to one public administration discipline (e.g. new public administration, etc.). In the area of decision making, the Fernando's seem to follow common sense and satisficing concepts of Herbert Simon. For instance,during the early years of the term of Engr. Bayani Ferrnando as the Mayor of Marikina City (now the MMDA Chairman), he introduced the concept of “by administration”. In doing public works. “By administration”, is the antinomy of contracting - out. It means the government will be the one to do public works that are usually done by the private contractors. The result of Bayani Fernando’s ‘by administration” approach is tremendous. The Marikina government was able to build more roads and other infrastructures given a certain budget. One reason for this is that the profit margins that could have gone to the contractors are added to the budget. Also, the corruption side or the “tongpats” that usually goes to the corrupt government officials are also added to the budget. Ballpark estimates roughly peg a cool 30 to 40 percent is added to the budget by just implementing the “by administration” concept.
The cases presented showed us a declining shoe industry despite the many achievements of the city. The industry is affected by the entry of cheaper footwear from China and Vietnam as a result of WTO - GATT where the Philippines is one of the signatories. The case on Kabayani showed us that local party can be at times, more effective than the national parties when it comes to exacting result and discipline. The case of the Fernando family, which started from Mayor Gil Fernando, to Bayani and Marides - and maybe in the future, Tala Fernando, is a case when poltical dynasty can be tolerated in some instance. Despite of the success of the Fernando administration in running Marikina government, the survey showed pockets of resistance and dissatisfaction.
5.0. Anticipated Conclusion:
From the primary data (interviews, FGD, and surveys) to secondary data (review of literature), some conclusion had been deduced from Marikina Way: That a local government in the Philippines has a better chance of progressing under the decentralized Philippine government set up. Good leadership, management style and decision making based on reflective thinking is part of a strong foundation of LGU governance. Public administration theories are good basis in evaluating the public soundness of innovation, but its mastery is or non mastery by an LGU leader will not hamper a leader from doing good. A reflective and eclectic management style based on emerging circumstances can be a better tool rather than boxing oneself in a certain discipline in public administration. The paper documented the eclectic approach of getting judgmentally the applicable theories and concepts and applying it to the ground level, in that case, a local government unit Marikina City. The proposition is this, just like in a garbage can theory, if an organization was able to select and apply the most appropriate theory given the circumstances of the organization, then, the result will be good. The trick on this assumption is to be able to know when to apply the and where. This by itself requires talent and value judgment.
Attachment A: A Sample of Proposed Survey Form
This form was initially pre tested in the class, thru mock interviews.
Basic Data about the Respondent
1. How old are you? _____
2. Male or Female? _____
3. How do you consider yourself? Rich _____ Middle Class ______ Poor _____
4. Politically, how do you consider yourself?
______ Administration ______ Opposition ________ Neutral
5. Based on ancestry, how do you consider yourself?
______Dayo ________ Lehitimo ________ Not Sure
6. Based on sector, how do you consider yourself?
____ Youth ____ Women ____ Elderly _____ Disabled _____Businessmen
7. Educational level
____Elementary _____ High School ______College ____ Post Graduate
Perceptions about the Fernando Administration
1. With 10 as the highest and 1 is the lowest: are you happy with the Fernando Administration? ______
2. Did your quality of life improved under the Fernando Administration?
______ Yes _____ No _____ Not Sure
3. Give two innovations that you like about the Fernando Administration?
4. Give two innovations in the Fernando Administration that you don’t like?
5. Would you like the Fernando Administration to continue? Why?
6. With 10 as the highest and 1 is the lowest: is the Fernando administration able to provide basic services? __________
7. With 10 as the highest and 1 is the lowest: is the Fernando Administration able to provide you with basic services? ______ Peace and order _______
Health _______ Employment _________
Cultural __________ Education ________
Good Values _______
8. Do you think Marikina will be better if the Fernando did not become Mayors? Yes ____ No _______ Why? _____________________________________________________
9. Who do you think is the better Mayor?
Bayani Fernando ________ Marides Fernando ________