Wednesday, March 19, 2008

A Pioneering Attempt to Put the World Government Concept in the Academic Map in Public Administration

Prof. Sofronio C. Dulay, AB (UP), MDM (AIM)
Consultant, Office of the Mayor, Marikina City

Introduction

In a Yahoo Message Board based in Australia, but whose members are people from all over the world,[1] it is a consensus that world government will happen; it is just a matter of time. The timing estimate differs. Some quarters believes that the world government will be formed in 2100. [2] One intellectual in the crusade for the formation of a world government is Steve McIntosh, a top caliber lawyer and philosopher from Colorado, USA. He is a core group member and one of the leaders of The Globalist Manifesto Party. In his book, he said that “if you have never been exposed to integral philosophy – if you can not make meaning (even partially) at the integral level of consciousness – then the idea of global governance is just probably no that interesting. However, you know you are beginning to metabolize the values of the integral worldview when the idea of bringing about a world federation within the next fifty years begins to become very exciting.”[3]

There are different groups of people worldwide – some are intellectuals, some are not, some are open minded, and some are not - advocating for the formation of a world government. They have different time frames for their advocacy.

It is now probably timely that we in the academic circle should start recognizing the de facto role of the worldwide web in distilling concepts and ideas, with the active interaction of the academicians, universities and practitioners or advocates in the distilling process. The desired net effect is to be able to come up with a sound conceptual and theoretical base that will guide the humanity in its march to the global government.

Because the crusade for the formation of global government is very heavy in the worldwide web, it is just fitting that we set the basic definition of this concept from their point of view. If one type “world government” in the Google Search, he will see 82,800,000 entries as of March 12, 2008. Out of these entries, the most visited one is an article from the Wikipedia about world government: “World government is the concept of a political body that would make, interpret and enforce international law. Inherent to the concept of a world government is the idea that nations would be required to pool or surrender (depending on point of view) sovereignty over some areas. In effect, a world government would add another level of administration above the existing national governments or provide coordination over areas national governments are not capable of adequately addressing as independent polities. The authority granted this level and how it relates to national governments and/or citizens is debated by both adherents and opponents to world government.”[4]

As one can see, the most dominant website in this concept is somewhat ambiguous in its definition; hence, one can conclude that there is a greater need for the academic sector to play a very important role in this defining moment of the humanities’ march to a great upheaval – towards the world government. The advocacy of this paper is for the professors and universities all over the world to lend its core competency in providing an intellectual guidance to this unfolding movement that could mean the future of the human race and the planet.

The compelling logical urgency of this appeal for the academicians to play an active role on this advocacy goes like this: since the world government will happen anyway – with our without the help of you and me – then, the best and most responsible way to act is to face the inevitable by holding the bull by the horn. Let us prepare for it with certainty, like death and tax. Let us study it closely and with the rigors of the academic discipline. Let us discuss it in the dinning tables. Include it in the topics in the intellectual forums, debates, discussion groups, research papers, term papers, thesis and dissertations. The on going unfolding of the formation of a world government is too important to be left to chance. We in the academe should give our share to the unfolding phenomenon.

The active participation of the academe will contribute tremendously to the enlightenment of the global public and it could prevent the emergence of a probable global despot that usually thrives well in the sea of ignorant masses. World history is full of sporadic attempts to form a world government by force. But all of them did not succeed. The Globalist Manifesto says that it is now high time to attempt the formation of global government through a different way… a complete paradigm shift from the use of force, to the use of consensus or diplomacy. Getting the consensus of the global public for the formation of a global government is easier today than in the times of Genghis Khan or Julius Caesar. The advancement of technology, specifically the phenomenon of the worldwide web, literally shrunk the territorial world and makes the clashes of ideas and passions less bloody. “Given that government is the only force left that binds most members of the contemporary society, the social science and humanist disciplines have necessarily adopted a historical perspective in their pursuit of an understanding of the government – in - society. More specifically, there is a growing need in public administration and political science for a better understanding of the past for the sake of the present and in the future.” [5] This observation seems to support the academic justification in the attempt to put the concepts revolving around the formation of global government in the ambit of public administration and political science.

The struggle of the advocates to put the concept of formation of a global government in the academic map via the portal of public administration seems to be a way to go. In part, world government can be subsumed as related to administrative history, and academic topic which is in the mainstream in public administration academic discipline. Other future scholars may find the proper and legitimate home for the world government concept in public administration as an academic discipline, the way for instance, bounded rationality of Herbert Simon, a very specialized topic, or some other seem – to – be - off tangent - topics have been safely welcomed in the public administration academic castle without too much ado. For after all, “administrative history in the broader sense studies different types of political organizations and the degree to which it includes the population.” [6]

There are other probable points of entries of the concept of world government into the academic discipline of public administration. One portal is the discussion of the creation of the state, specifically the genetic logic of Woodrow Wilson in the creation of the state. We can also look at the world government as a part of a post modernist concept – a reaction to the present national government concept. After all, the advocates of post modernism have the propensity to describe the present state of a concept and propose a new one in a different angle or lens. The whole academic community accepts the approach because admittedly, it will lead, to say the least, to intellectual masturbation.
The formation of a world government can be viewed also as one of the manifest destinies of the on-going phenomenon academically tagged as globalization. When public administration thinkers talk about hollow and disarticulated states, which seem to be concepts that are catching like wildfire in our field of academic discipline, they are consciously or unconsciously, doing a lip service to a covert phenomenon today… of the weakening of the national government and the slowly strengthening of, what will I term as the “the world government’s invisible hands”, which will eventually deliver the human race, in the long continuum of time, into a global government.

But then again, the formation of global government is not only a budding academic discipline; it is grounded on a hard nosed global practice with warm bodies and passionate advocates whose body counts can be empirically measured. This budding academic discipline therefore, is if I may say, an academic phenomenon by itself - profoundly intellectual yet so quantitative in some respect that in can squarely fall into the positivist portal. Take a look on the quantitative approach on the question of “what is the actual body count in the whole world of people who had been exposed in one way or another to the concept world government?” Fifty years ago, his question would have been very lunatic. Scholars who might attempt to answer this might do qualitative approaches in forecasting like Delphi method, or jury of the executive method. Today, all we need to do is to go to the leading search engines in the worldwide web like Google and Yahoo, search for topics like world government, global government, formation of a world government, The Globalist Manifesto, formation of a global government, creation of a global government, and creation of world government and look at the summarized count of the number of websites talking about these topics, do a simple mathematical summation of these websites and one will have a rough estimate of the body count. Of course this is not accurate. For one, there could be some double counting, yet there is a big probability that a sizeable mass of people all over the world who are not into the worldwide web, and therefore are not in the statistics, who are aware of the concept of world government. So, the two probabilities cancel each others out and what remains is the count of the search engines which has become more credible. This forecasting method can be subjected to lots of academic scrutiny and this in itself is one rich area in the proposed world government academic concept. If someone searches in the Google and types the words world government, 607,000,000 entries will be available. If one types global government, 466, 000,000 entries will be there. The combined numbers of the two is 1,073,000,000. The world population reached 6 billion on October 12, 1999. Therefore, the number of sites talking about global government and world government are around 1/6 of the world’s population. Or said other way, one out of six people on earth, more or less, has the idea of a global or world government. This is a potential number for an advocacy campaign.

Simple mathematics would point that 1/6 is a big “one out of six” of the global public already aware of the global government. This is already a big critical mass for any upheaval. “It is estimated that at the time of the American Revolution, only about 10% of America’s population made meaning at the modernist level of consciousness. Yet, this was enough to bring about the unprecedented rise of continental democracy. And similarly, we can anticipate that when the integralists comprised approximately 10% of the population of the developed world, the integral world view’s political agenda for global governance may become a reality.” [7]


The concept of world government as an academic discipline, at least in the Philippines and possibly all over the world, is so new, almost in a pioneering level. Top professors of the University of the Philippines National College of Public Administration and Governance, (NCPAG), one of the leading academic institution in the country known for top caliber professors and above average students, have this reaction to a paper proposal on this topic submitted by a doctoral student:

Prof. J. Prospero De Vera 111: “This is a very refreshing interest but I have to admit this is the first time I've heard it. The idea of a review of literature is good given that this is, as you said "an emerging interest". Have you preliminarily checked if there is indeed literature on the www? And is the literature substantive enough to do a review. The www has a lot of junk and I am afraid you might catch these also”.

Dr. Danny Reyes, another well known professor said that he is uncomfortable about the topic. In fact, he rejected the topic when it was presented to him in the previous semester. The second time it was presented to him, he accepted it with reservation, saying further as his rationalization, that he does not want to be a hindrance to a possible topic that has a potential effect on a world upheaval. He even mentioned a music group whose composition was rejected by a music professor but that same music became a worldwide hit.

Professor Reyes even allowed a discussion in the class about world government. One Saturday morning of January, in that History of Administrative Thought class of Prof. Reyes, a student Maria Victoria L. Mangaser - Garong was reporting on "Woodrow Wilson on the History of Government, A Passing Fad or Constitutive Framework for His Philosophy of Governance” by Jos C. N. Raadschelders. The reporter said that Wilson believed that state sprung from family which grew into tribe, and into larger territories. This is termed as the "genetic explanation” of state. The reporter even quoted Wilson as saying that "the government is not a machine, but a living thing. It falls not under the universe, but under the theory of organic life." Wilson said that "government is accountable to Darwin and not to Newton". At this point of the class discussion, I raised an issue: did Wilson stop his genetic explanation of the formation of the state in the level of state? I argued that following the same logic used by Wilson, the genetic march of the formation of the state will lead into the formation of different states into a world government. At this point, the class became very enthusiastic. Apparently, the logic is so clear and convincing, yet, it touched on something that is still very fresh in the academic circle ...the world government. Student Leo Hernandez agreed on the logic but he said that people of the world will only unite if an outside force from other planets will threaten the very existence of our planet or the humankind. Student Rey Chang said that the genetic theory of Wilson is already happening with globalization. Dr. Joey Montemayor said that the formation of the world government has already been prophesized in the Bible, but unfortunately, an anti - Christ will lead it. Another student argued that world government may happen because of the advent of new technology. One student said that outside planetary threats can be substituted by internal threat to mankind like global warming, terrorism, and nuclear war. One student throws another hypothetical question: if we will have a world government, who will lead it. I decided to remain silent, anxiously waiting for the final opinion of Prof. Danny Reyes, remembering that he rejected my previous semester’s paper proposal on world government. Finally, Prof. Reyes said that world government might be formed in response to a nuclear disaster being poised by the rouge states. He said that nations might unite to prevent these rouge states from creating a nuclear disaster. Prof. Reyes even explained that Wilson was the main proponent of the League of Nations and one of the reasons why it did not materialize was because the US Senate failed to ratify the treaty mandating the USA to join the league. Wilson, according to Prof. Reyes, has been at odds with the US Senate at that time. Prof. Reyes even told the class that I wanted to write a paper on world government.

At this point in the milestone of world government, a potential academic discipline as made a touch down in the halls of the Philippine academic circle, specifically in the University of the Philippines, through Professor de Vera, in the previous semester and this semester, on Prof. Reyes’ class.

Movements for World Government in the Philippines
An indication of a concept becoming popular is the existence of reviews and article about it in the libraries. So, I did check the NCPAG library for any article about world government or global government. Unfortunately, no article has been found regarding this topic in the library, which made me conclude that if a library of a leading school of governance for the country does not have any article about the topic, then, the other libraries of lesser popularity will also not have it. This made me conclude that formation of a global government, as a crusade, is not yet popular in the Philippines. World Government Institute, based in Japan, was founded in order to establish the World Government. The Institute was founded by Toshio Suzuki, webmaster of their website, on 1 May 1997. This institute is composed of branches in different part of the world. A lot of their country headquarters and presidents have not been decided yet. The branches are listed in their own branch list. No branch however has paid up yet to the international headquarters. The website of the group is administered by World Government Institute of Japan. The World Government Institute Philippines is headed by Dr. Jaime B. Ramirez and its office is at 1237 Instruccion Street, Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines. It has one volunteer staff. A check on the office does not show any activities related to the advocacy for the formation of a global government in the country. In a meeting held in Bacolod City, Philippines, of World Future Studies Federation, the need for empowerment of civil society and global government is echoed in the paper of Rakesh Kapoor, who in his paper, entitled "Fast Forward to Fragmented Futures" said: “We see a world today that is economically integrated but politically disunited. The most intractable problems that we may face in the future relate to destruction of the environment, nuclear war, the persistent expansion and globalization of capital, leading to distorted human relationships, on the one hand and increased economic inequalities - within and between nations - on the other. Since all these problems are of a global nature, the ideal way to be able to solve them will be the formation of a global government, which will have the political authority to mediate between and keep in check the nation-states of today.” The Globalist Manifesto, a worldwide web snowballing advocacy that started in the Philippines was started by accident. Its websites are in the top ten of both Yahoo and Alta Vista search engines in the topic of "formation of a global government" over around 7 million entries. The Globalist Manifesto is printed in basically four websites today: the original is the "global", then later it was published in "founders", "personal" and "party", all in www.geocities.com. These four often land in the top ten in both Yahoo and Alta Vista search engines over millions of other entries. The Globalist Manifesto was actually hatched in Asian Institute of Management (AIM) in the Philippines by accident when one fine morning sometime 2003 in the Master in Development Management case room, one student secretly posted a one - page essay entitled "The Globalist Manifesto" in its class bulletin board. The article was a result of an overdosed of Prof. Ed Morato's VMOKRAPISPATRES strategic planning sessions the other day. Eventually, the class (the MDM batch 14 that started the International Movement of Development Managers), created their "global" website with the full text of the manifesto in it. Unknown to the class, the word globalist, even up to now, is not even recognized by Microsoft Word spelling checker. (This is a proof that ignorance is sometimes beneficial.)
The first “freak accident” happened when the Google, the leading search engine in the world, placed the "global' website in the top 10 of the topic globalization for around 4 months. This singular incident is an indication of what will happen in the next four years.
Four years later…today, if one searches for "globalist manifesto" in Google, it will show you around 1,560 entries. (By the way, if you put " " in your search item in Google, it means advanced search, meaning you are asking Google to search the worldwide web and list the websites that talk about your search item as a single word.) In a nutshell, after four years, 1,560 websites are already talking about the Globalist Manifesto. Now if you add in your search "formation of a global government” or formation of a "world government" and "globalist manifesto", Google will list around 27, 800 websites. If one will look at the counters of the Google cache of the four websites mentioned, each of them has more than 1 million visitors in four years. In Yahoo cache, each of them has around 600, 000 visitors and around the same count in Alta Vista. Because the visitors of the three search engines are mathematically mutually exclusive, we can conclude that at least 10 million visitors worldwide have seen The Globalist Manifesto. Conservatively, at least around ten percent of them would have read it thoroughly and agreed with it completely. This means that The Globalist Manifesto has around 1 million believers worldwide as of today.What Do Some Websites Say About The Globalist Manifesto?

“Currently, there has not been a nation to officially put forward plans for a world government, although some people do see international institutions (such as the International Criminal Court, United Nations, and International Monetary Fund) as the beginning elements of a world government system. An organization comprised of legislators from various nations known as Parliamentarians for Global Action have promoted ideas of democratic global governance, though such promotion has varied in its scope and intensity during the organization's history.Capitalizing on the growing importance of worldwide web in the human civilization, a group of individuals adhering to The Globalist Manifesto[1] is actively advocating for the formation of one world government, initially through the internet.”[8]

“Globalization refers to a process of increasing integration between units around the world, including nation-states, households/individuals corporations and other organizations. It is an umbrella term, covering economic, trade, social, technological, cultural and political aspects, and is the opposite of deglobalization. Today, a proactive form of globalization is emerging, spawning from a drive by international corporations to loosen trade restrictions. It is the global financial firms that have been the most eager proponents of this expansion. A group of advocates from different parts of the world had been pushing for an integrated global society as envisioned in The Globalist Manifesto which is the foundation of globalism ideology.”[9]

“Many believe the idea of the “new world order” originated in the early 1900s with Cecil Rhodes, who advocated that the British Empire and the United States should jointly impose a Federal World Government (with of course English as the official language) to bring about lasting world peace. Lionel Curtis, who also believed in this idea, founded the Rhodes-Milner Round Table Groups in 1909, which led to the establishment of the British based Royal Institute for International Affairs in 1919 and the U.S. based Council on Foreign Relations in 1920. The concept was further developed by Edward M. House, a close advisor to Woodrow Wilson during the negotiations to set up the League of Nations (it is unclear whether it was House or Wilson who invented the actual phrase). Another important influence was the futurist H.G. Wells, a vigorous advocate for World Government. There is a prediction that the next major historical world upheaval will emerge from the worldwide web. As a sign of the growing influence of the worldwide web in the human civilization today, a group of advocates from different parts of the world, adhering to The Globalist Manifesto, are snowballing the formation of a global political party of selected individuals for the formation of a global government. This party may or may not be influenced by “conspirators”. Their websites had been rating in the top 10 of the Yahoo and Alta Vista search engines under the topic of “formation of global government”. Some of their websites were also in the top ten in the Google search.”[10]
Perhaps at this point of this paper, the reader is already dead curious about what is that stuff written in The Globalist Manifesto that makes it snowballed by itself? The point is: in four years, a trend has been spotted that The Globalist Manifesto is evolving into one of the main literatures in the crusade for the formation of a global government, at least in the worldwide web. How far can it go? Will the trend continue or will it die down? Well, only God knows. But one thing can be said from here: that Asian Institute of Management in the Philippines hatched the seed for this potentially great upheaval in human civilization by accident. Below is the full version of the manifesto.
THE GLOBALIST MANIFESTO
"Someday, this world will be peaceful, united, educated and prosperous. There will be no war, no poverty, and no discrimination. A world able to protect itself from global warming, over consumption, nuclear disaster, pollution, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, and AIDS. A world that is able to practice sustainable development, protection of environment and responsible parenthood. There is a world future where there will be no national boundaries, no racial discrimination, nor religious fanaticism.Because every human being is a child of God, everyone is equally important and deserves to enjoy human rights, freedom, happiness and prosperity. The citizens of the world have the duty to act towards this vision, in wherever, whenever, and whatever they can within their status in life. As soon as possible, and through a democratic consensus of all nations via global plebiscite and a drafting of a global constitution through an international constitutional convention, the goal of the citizens of the world is to set up a single and unified global government with police powers, powers to tax, and has the power of eminent domain.This task is arduous and long, but there is no justification for any armed solution in pursuance of this vision. Diplomacy should be the only way.The global government will have judicial, executive, and legislative branches; a government-financed two-party system from the global presidency down to village level; with one monetary system, civil service system, electoral system and an economic system grounded on free enterprise. A global president, vice-president, a chamber of hereditary leaders and a chamber of territorial representatives will be popularly elected. The territorial divisions of the world will have governors, vice governors, and territorial representatives who will also be popularly elected. The cabinet heads of the global government and as well as that of the geographical divisions, should come from the popularly elected representatives of the territorial divisions.There are Ten (10) Stages towards the formation of the Global Government: 1. Information drive and leveling - off using the Globalist Manifesto, 2. Formation of the critical mass of global advocates from every corner of the world, 3. Formation of the International Global Government Organizing Committee, 4. International Convention to Draft the Global Constitution, 5. International Plebiscite on the Global Constitution. 6. Formation of the global two - party system. 7. Election of the Global President, Vice-President, Territorial Representatives, and International Council of Hereditary Leaders. 8. Appointment of the Global Cabinet from among the Territorial Representatives. 9. Formation of the Global Seat of Government, Armed Forces and Central Bank. 10. Managing the world towards lasting peace and prosperity.This manifesto should be advocated worldwide to kings, queens, heads of the states, and heads of the government, diplomats, military leaders, educators, scientists, church leaders, business leaders, personalities, thinkers and everyone. Leaders from all over the world would advocate this vision and one of them should become the founding president of the global government with the rest as the founding fathers. YOU COULD BE ONE OF THEM."[11](The original manuscript of this manifesto emerged from the classroom of the Master in Development Management, Class of 2003, at the Asian Institute of Management, Makati City, Philippines, on October 18, 2002. The purity of this manifesto should be maintained to avoid misunderstandings as we go on our journey towards the Global Government someday. That government may not happen within your personal lifetime but it will come within the time of the Creator.) The Globalist Manifesto, which originated in the Philippines, is getting adherents among those who are advocating for the formation of a global government world wide. The advocacy campaign is basically based in the World Wide Web which explains the fact the crusade is not yet popular in the mainstream of the Philippine society. The Globalist Manifesto has a unique appeal – direct, honest, clear and simple – which could be the reason why it has the seemingly capacity to snowball by itself, at least in the web.

Looking for Entry Points

Some topics discussed in the Public Administration subjects can be several jumping boards for the world government concept as an academic discipline.

Global State and Global Government

“Nationalism is the theory of the nation-state, and as such, it has had an enormous impact on the modern world. The term nation and state are often confused. Nation is a sociological term referring to a group of people who have a sense of union with one another. A state is a political term that includes four elements: people, territory, government, and sovereignty.” [12] A global state therefore, is a political term that assumes that the people of the world have somewhat agreed to have a sense of sociological union with one another and is about to embark in a political endeavor of organizing into one people, combining their national territories into one global territory, forming a world government and claiming for itself a sense of sovereignty. Take note that world government is just one of the four elements of the global states, so, in terms of advocacy, a global government necessitates a humanity that embraces its other as one, sharing the earth as one territory and having sovereignty. Alexander Hamilton ‘believed that given sufficient power, the government could guarantee the prosperity and happiness of the nation.”[13] This same logic can be extended into the realm of world government and global state.

The Theories of the Origin of the State

According to the natural theory of the state, “humans are social beings by nature; that is, they naturally gather together and interact with one another, thus, forming a community. This congregation takes place for reasons which go beyond simple biological necessity. The formal organization of the community is the state. The formation of the state is a result of people’s natural inclination to interact.”[14] This is the version of Aristotle, the father of political science. By same logic, the global public and by its very nature, may end up coming together as a global state. This coming together will be hastened by the unprecedented communication and technological advances. The believers of the Globalist Manifesto are aligned with this theory.

The force theory of the origin of the state says that force was not something to be avoided. On the contrary, it was the primary value in the society. It was its own justification. “Might makes right”, as Nietzche puts it. “The state institutes the power of the strong over the weak and simply arranged the affairs as they should be. According to force theorists, the weak should be ruled by the strong.” [15] The world government, according to this view, should be initiated by force by the consortium of the world powers like the USA, Russia, European Union and probably China. The advocates of the New World Order (NWO) seem to be close to this theory. The NWO has heir own timeline which is leading to the ultimate formation of a world government.

The divine theory is based on the common assumption that some people are God’s chosen ones. “Saul, for example, was anointed by Samuel, the prophet of God, and Saul led the “chosen people” in the conquest of the Philistines. The Arabs conquered a vast empire, the Crusaders invaded the Middle East in the name of the “true religion”, and the Islamic fundamentalists still claim that they are the chosen ones. Similarly, the Japanese, believing that they were favored by the sun goddess (Amaterasu) and convinced that their emperor was her direct descendant, willingly died in the emperor’s cause, thinking that salvation awaited them for such martyrdom.” [16] In the crusade for the formation of the global government, there are groups identified with the divine theory. One such group is an openly Anti - Christ group led by Dr. Jose Louis de Jesus Miranda whose followers believe that he is the Anti Christ that will someday rule the world. There are groups who believe in the second coming of Christ and propagate that Christ himself will rule the world in his second coming. The Jewish have their own version of one of them, a deliberant, will rule the world someday. The followers of the Baha’i faith has also their own belief of someone from them will emerge and rule the world.

The social contract theory says that the “ruler and the ruled agreed on their respective roles and had obligations to one another.”[17] This theory implied that the ruler governed with the consent of the constituents. The Globalist Manifesto Party is advocating for the formation of a global government under this theory. It is stipulated in the 10 stages for towards the formation of a world government in the Globalist Manifesto itself.



The Milestones of the Global Government thought

Attempts of different conquerors in various stages of world history can be clustered into one big category, formation of the global government by force. This paper leaves it to history books to states its own milestones along this category.

Admittedly, this paper had been influenced by the Globalist Manifesto, and as an advocacy twist, we feel that it is more challenging to try to attempt drawing the “milestone of thoughts” that shapes the formation of a world government concept through diplomacy or consensus along the passage of time, rather than the tagging the upheaval in terms of “milestone of wars”.

“For I dipt into the future, far as human eye could see,
Saw the Vision of the world, and all the wonders that would be;Till the war-drum throbb’d no longer, and the battle-flags were furl'dIn the Parliament of man, the Federation of the world.There the common sense of most shall hold a fretful realm in awe,
And the kindly earth shall slumber, lapt in universal law.”
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, “Locksley Hall” (1837)
US President Harry Truman, who oversaw the founding of the United Nations after the Second World War, kept these lines from Tennyson's poem in his wallet
Ideas of world government and citizenship is found in ancient Chinese and Indian as well as Graeco-Roman thought .This concept was expressed in political form, which later translated into medieval Christian proposals for a global political authority; while the historical model of imperial Rome inspired medieval quests for world empire.
Dante (1265–1321), an Italian poet expounded the Christian ideal of human unity, a world governed by a universal monarch. He argued that wars and all their causes would be eliminated if “the whole earth and all that humans can be a monarchy, that is, one government under one ruler. Because he possesses everything, the ruler would not desire to possess anything further, and thus, he would hold kings contentedly within the borders of their kingdoms, and keep peace among them”
. In Leviathan [1651], Hobbes (1588–1679) thinks that the individuals surrender some of their rights to the state but he did not think that the present states should also surrender their rights to a global government or global leviathan. Charles Castel, AbbĂ© de Saint-Pierre (1658–1743), in his Project for Making Peace Perpetual in Europe [1713], said that an international leviathan concept should lead the monarchs of Europe to form a federation of states by social contract. This is necessary for their preservation and self interest. This federation will require this monarch to come up with a common congress.
Albert Einstein also talked of the necessity for the formation of a global government.

The recent set of ideas towards global government is found in the Globalist Manifesto. And this is widely circulated with the advent of the worldwide web. This manifesto points out that world government is necessary and it will happen through time. Since it will happen anyway, we have to shape it towards universal democratic concepts like one person - one vote principle, balance of power, respect of culture and religion, federalism, stable party system, consensus building, diplomacy, representative democracy, etc. It is the most modern and comprehensive sets of dictum so far in the milestone of thoughts along the line of the formation of global government.


World Government as a Post Modernist Concept.

If we take the current nation state as we know today as a modernist thought, then, the global state and its world government can be a post modernist concept. “Like virtually everyone in public administration, post modernists seek to break down both the organizational silos and the fixed patterns of thought that come with categories and actual and intellectual territory. The post modern deterritorialization argument has long been a part of public administration, although postmodernists could claim that their approaches to ameliorating the structural deficits of organizations promise to be more successful than earlier approaches.” [18] World government, being a post modernist public administration concept, can provide answers even to some establish political theories. For instances, we can say that the dialectical materialism of Marx predicts that the end point of all these series of thesis and anti-thesis is a stateless society, some sort of savagery. The world government as a post modernist theory offers a different view at the end of the tunnel. Prof. Danny Reyes said in our class that at least, this view is better than the end view being offered by the Marxist, the stateless society, because the concept of world government offers an efficient bureaucracy managing the affairs of mankind as its end view.



Globalization, Hollow and Disarticulated States, Steering versus Rowing…where will they lead us?

Any keen observer of public administration will conclude that the intensification of globalization, the emerging phenomenon of hollow and disarticulated states, the governments that are just doing the steering and not anymore rowing - all these put together - is leading this humanity into something in the long run….the weakening of the nation states and the strengthening of international institutions. This is a prelude to the ultimate destiny of man, the world government. “In disarticulated state, borders are less meaningful in political jurisdiction of all types – special districts, cities, countries, states and nation-states. Economic and social activity is increasingly multi jurisdictional, a trend encouraged by the development of new technologies, the globalization of marketplace, increasing residential mobility and immigration.” [19] The trend towards a weak nation-state government is observable vis a vis the increasing strength of the international community and the non government sectors. “In the so - called hollow states, with its extended contract and sub-contract reforms, the characteristics of load or tight inter institutional coupling is as important as the bureaucratic features of each of the coupled institutions. Probably many more persons do “public” works by or through contracts than there are persons in the formal jurisdiction of the bureaucracies.” [20]

Other suggested topics within the concept of world government that can be subjected to the rigors of the academic discipline of public administration

As in other disciplines, definition of basic terms revolving around world government should be done like world government, global government, global public, global state. Etc. Academic debates, symposia, forums, and discussion groups should be regularly done to determine if the concept belongs to public administration or to political science, which will lead to finer definition of terms, discovery of related concepts, and demarcation of boundaries - the locus and focus – of both political science and public administration disciplines. The Globalist Manifesto should be routinely criticized and evaluated using different lens in order to remain relevant with the rapid changing times. Deeper research on the milestones, including its key personalities, of the march towards the formation of global government should be pursued. For one, it should be mentioned that the University of the Philippines NCPAG is the first ever university in the Philippines, or maybe in the world, to initiate a formal academic study on this concept. A rich literature can be planted in the area of world government bureaucracy - the past, present and future. This field could be historical, descriptive and prescriptive. The formation of the world government advocates matrix, who are these advocates, their organizations, their stand and their approaches. What would be very interesting not only to academicians but also to practitioners of public administration and political science is the topic of what is the current status of the march towards global government. We can also play around Waldonian antinomies of some terms used in the world government concepts like Communist Manifesto – Globalist Manifesto, stateless society – global government, nation state – global state, consensus – force, evolution – creation, Globalist Manifesto – new world order, federal – unitary, amending UN – replacing UN, Etc. We can think of so many other antinomies as the global government concept is gaining foothold in the public administration academic castle because the use of antinomies is a basic “technique of analysis and a form of pedagogy, Waldo often used “antinomies or “paired alternatives” method.”[21]



Conclusion

Although I am constraints with the limitations of time and number of pages, in fact the class suggested that I have to limit the paper and just state the facts, I remained focus to the objective of this paper, that is, to put the world government concept as part of the academic map of public administration. I did that by showing that by just using the lens of the global government advocates, one will realize that there are so many topics related to world government that are already part of the public administration mainstream and all we need to do is to discuss them in the view point of world government. An example of which is globalization, hollow and disarticulated states, etc.

I must confess that I have a selfish motive here…I want to propagate my advocacy for world government to unsuspecting audience using the academe as my stage. The dog has to do what the dog as to do. Its part of an advocacy strategy. Am I being unethical – living at the expense of other people? Hell no! In fact, by teaching people to look at events using the lens of my advocacy, the more they will understand the rationale of most political, social and business phenomena unfolding right before their very eyes. For instance, one would realized that contracting out will weaken the government in the long run by making it as hollow as hollow blocks and thereby strengthening the superpowers and international organizations, contributing eventually to the formation of global government in the end game. If one is being paranoid about it, one may even conclude that a global secretive group is pulling the string from behind for the humanity to go into this direction. By the way, some people within the crusade itself have a term for this secretive group. They call them illuminati.

I have an academic wishful thinking, that 2000 years from now, (that is a very long time), when the world is being run by the President of the global government and some restive students like me are researching on the history of the global state and world government, I wish they will encounter the UP NCPAG, Prof. Danny Reyes, Prof. Popoy de Vera and a certain doctoral student by the name of Toti Dulay of circa 2008 AD as part of the few dots in the academic milestones in public administration or political science under the topic of global government. This wishful thinking is driving the wheel of my advocacy efforts.

After this paper, I will continue to advocate using mostly my five websites and two blogs in the worldwide web about world government. One thing going about my advocacy works is that my websites and blogs are all rated well (in the top ten among millions of entries) by both Google and Yahoo Search engines, and even Alta Vista in topics “formation of global government” and “formation of world government”. I am seriously considering making this as my topic for my dissertation. Do I have a time frame for my advocacy works? My lifetime is my timeframe.
“All this will not be finished in the first hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first thousand days, nor in the life of this administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin. ” John F. Kennedy [22]

(This paper is a class requirement in P.A. 302, History of Administrative Thought, UP NCPAG, under Prof. Danny Reyes. The author wishes to thank Prof. Reyes for his support in brainstorming and writing this article.)







Annotated Bibliography:

McIntosh, Steve.2007.Integral Consciousness and the Future of Evolution. St. Paul, MN:Paragon House,pp 122-123.

This book is about evolution of consciousness and culture and how it will eventually impact in the evolution of our society. It talks about integral consciousness which is a profound new way of seeing things. It gives pragmatic solution to problems like climate change, terrorism, globalization and poverty. Aside from providing a global vision, the book provides a well-defined path for significant personal growth.

Raadschelders, Jos. C.N. 2003.”Administrative History.” In B.Guy Peters and jon Perre. (eds.) Handbook of Public Administration. London: Sag. Pp 161-168.

Administrative history defines historical approach in the study of public administration and the feature that makes it a unique study. It also discusses the historical development of administrative history as well as some of its dominant themes, and challenges. Somewhere in the article are discussions on some methods of looking at administrative history.

Baradat, Leon P. 1994. Political Ideologies: Their Origins and Impact. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice – Hall. “Theories of the Origin of the State,” pp.145-50.

The discussion took of from a preview of nationalism as a concept including the distinction of nation and state. It also proceeded with talks about the theories of the origin of the states like natural theory, force theory, divine theory, divine rights of king’s theory and the social contract theory. In the later part of the article, it talks again about nationalism, its history and theories.

Frederickson, H. George and Kevin B. Smith.2003. The Public Administration Theory Primer. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

The book provides theories and approaches and their role in the field of public administration. The political control theory talks about relationship of the bureaucracy wit regards to law and lawmakers, the bureaucratic politics theory is about shows the weakness of politics-administration dichotomy, theories of public institutions is about management and organization of public institutions, theories of public management discuss different thoughts and concepts that shapes public administration, postmodern theory questions existing paradigms and thoughts as to their ability to provide the universal truths, decision theory shows a formal, mature and distinct model indigenous to public administration, rational or public choice theory talks about rational self – interest motivates purposive action, theories of governance describes a changing public administration, and the theory in public administration tried to assemble facts and approaches related to public administration in a coherent way.

Caroll, James D. and George Frederickson. 2001.”Dwight Waldo 1913-2000.” Public Administration Review. Vol.61,no.1 (January/February),pp.2-8.

The article talks about the life and works of Dwight Waldo covering his early life, the middle years and the later years. Waldo’s early career, as described by him is characterized by recurring “failed his way upward” thing. The middle years, is mostly his life at Berkeley which to him is the best years of his life as a teacher. His later years are mostly his works based on Woodrow Wilson Institute. The article talks about Waldonian pedagogy.

Raadchelders, Jos C.N. 2002. “Woodrow Wilson on the History of Government: Passing Fad or Constitutive Framework for His Philosophy of Governance?” Administration and Society. Vol.34, no.5 (November), pp. 579-598.

The article talks about Woodrow Wilson and his thoughts as an academician in the field of public administration, as well as his accomplishments. It also talks about his book, The State, and some of the ideas expounded on the book, including its impact. The article also talks about the link of Wilson as academician and as a politician. The article somewhat implied at the end that the expertise of Wilson on public administration have not provide a humbling effect on him which explains why along the way, he has created lots of despisers, which explained partly why the League of Nations was rejected by the Senate.

http://www.geocities.com/globalistmanifesto/party.html

This is the official website of the Globalist Manifesto Party. The party is advocating for the formation of a global government according to the vision of a public document The Globalist Manifesto which is printed in the leading websites in Yahoo Search under the topic of “formation of a global government”. The official website also contains the list of the party core groups and some of their exchange of letters.



http://www.beyondkonspiracy.com/category/politics/new-world-order/

This website talks about feature important global articles about a variety of global issues. Some of the issues it has touched so far are, business (US and International), Casual Observation, Ideology, India, business (India), culture (India), politics (India), Politics, 9/11, Culture, Global Climate Change, Healthcare, Hurricane Katrina, Judicial System, New World Order, Short Stories (Fiction). This website is listed in the leading search engines under some of the topics it touch.

http://en.allexperts.com/q/Marketing-1090/globalization.htm

Allexperts was created in early 1998. It is the first large-scale question and answer service on the net. It has thousands of volunteers, including top lawyers, doctors, engineers, and scientists, waiting to answer your questions. All answers are free and most come within a day. It covers a wide range of topics. It has lots of features including a free encyclopedia service. It has been receiving awards/recognition for its service.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_government

Wikipedia is a multilingual, Web-based, free content encyclopedia project. It covers wide variety of topics written and edited by volunteers world wide. Although Wikipedia articles do not have the rigors of pure academic articles because they did not pass the peer review, Wikipedia articles can be a good initial reference or lead of an academic article because most article of Wikipedia are listed prominently in the leading search engines and are therefore read or are accessible to a big number of readers.
















[1] http://au.messages.yahoo.com/news/world/42574?p=1
[2] http://www.longbets.org/22
[3] McIntosh, Steve. 2007. Integral Consciousness and the Future of Evolution. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House, pp 122-123.
[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_government
[5] Raadschelders, Jos. C.N. 2003.”Administrative History.” In B.Guy Peters and jon Perre. (eds.) Handbook of Public Administration. London: Sag. P 161
[6] Ibid, p.164.
[7] McIntosh, p. 118
[8] http://www.omnipelagos.com/entry?n=world_government
[9] http://en.allexperts.com/q/Marketing-1090/globalization.htm
[10] http://www.beyondkonspiracy.com/category/politics/new-world-order/
[11] http://www.geocities.com/globalistmanifesto/founders.html

[12] Baradat, Leon P. 1994. Political Ideologies: Their Origins and Impact. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice – Hall. “Theories of the Origin of the State,” p 41
[13] Rutgers, Mark R.2001.”Traditional Flavors? The different sentiments in European and American administrative thought.” Administration and Society. Vol 33, no.2 (May), p. 7.
[14] Baradat, p 45.
[15] Ibid, p 46.
[16] Ibid, p 46.
[17] Ibid, p 49.
[18] Frederickson, H. George and Kevin B. Smith.2003. The Public Administration Theory. Primer. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p 158.
[19] Ibid ,p.222
[20] Ibid, p.70
[21] Caroll, James D. and George Frederickson. 2001.”Dwight Waldo 1913-2000.” Public Administration Review. Vol.61,no.1 (January/February),p.5
[22] http://www.geocities.com/globalistmanifesto/party.html

3 comments:

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Jasuk TK said...

It seems we are cut of similar cloth. I have made my own recent academic attempts to include World Government and International Society under the guise of Political Science and Public Administration within my own school. But alas I have graduated and now it is time to practice what I have preached. We can in this generation make a world government.

Keep fighting the good fight.

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